Conservative and surgical treatment
Discomfort while eating, an unattractive appearance are only part of the manifestations of a recession. A neglected disease can lead to dangerous complications, loosening and even loss of teeth.
If, instead of enjoying the taste of your favorite food, you experience discomfort, you should immediately contact your Dentist. You may be developing such a dangerous disease as gum recession.
Recession is a pathological condition when the volume of the gums decreases, while the neck and root of the tooth are exposed. This is not only an aesthetic problem: the sensitivity of the teeth increases, the risk of caries and inflammation of the gum tissue increases. In its advanced form, the disease leads to loosening and loss of teeth. Recession treatment can be conservative or surgical, but, first of all, the Your Dentist family dentist looks for and eliminates the cause of the problem. It is important to see your dentist in the early stages of the disease. In this case, the doctor has much more opportunities for successful treatment in the arsenal.
The onset of gum recession may be indicated by increased sensitivity of the teeth, when cold, hot, acidic foods cause discomfort. At different stages, the disease can also be accompanied by bleeding and inflammation of the gums, while the color of the gums changes – it can become paler than a healthy gum, or, conversely, acquire a bright shade.
Find out the details
- What happens if not treated
- Who is most likely to have gum recession?
- Disease development stages
- The main causes of the disease
- Treatment of gum recession: conservative and surgical
What happens if not treated
In the absence of treatment and in the later stages of the disease, loosening of the teeth is observed, free space appears between the teeth and the gum – the so-called periodontal pockets. Food accumulates in them, harmful microflora develops – this leads to further destruction of teeth and gum tissue. Caries in the root zone is another characteristic sign of the disease. Sometimes it happens that gum recessions are not painful, and the dentist can detect the disease during a routine examination.
Who is most likely to have gum recession?
Gum recession most often occurs in adults with a permanent dentition. However, statistics show that about 10% of adolescents aged 15 years have signs of gum recession. This disease does not depend on age. Rather, its reasons need to be sought in how a person lives, how he takes care of his teeth, how often he visits the dentist. Also, the development of a recession is possible with anomalies in the bite, the location of the teeth and other anatomical features.
Disease development stages
There are 3 manifestations of gingival recession: mild, moderate and severe, when the roots of the tooth are open by more than 0.5 cm. The disease can affect one tooth (local recession) or an entire area of the gum (generalized recession). Conservative treatment of recession in the area of tooth attachment and in the interdental space is possible. In the case when the disease leads to significant loss of gum tissue and begins to grasp the bone – the used surgical way of treatment. It should be noted that in a deep recession, a situation may arise when it is too late to carry out the operation. It is important to remember that gum recession is easier to fix than to cure.
The main causes of the disease
- Oral inflammation, dental plaque and internal diseases – diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis (inflammation of the gums and soft tissues surrounding the teeth) can cause gum recession. Dental deposits or, as they are called, stones provoke a recession on both the upper and lower teeth: they often displace the gums by 2-3 mm. Recession risk factors also include decreased immunity and metabolic disorders due to various diseases of internal organs.
- Injury to the gums – gum tissue can be injured due to poor oral hygiene: when brushing teeth using a toothbrush with stiff bristles, due to strong pressure and improper movements during brushing (instead of sweeping movements from the gums to the edge of the tooth, the brush moves in backward or across the tooth). Toothpicks or other traumatic items used to clean the interdental space of food debris can also damage the gums and trigger a recession. Bad habits (nail biting, pencil biting when they are intrusive) is another risk factor for further recession. Sports and household injuries, injuries when taking solid food, trauma to the gums with dental instruments during treatment, injuries due to improper design of dental prostheses (when crowns hang over the tooth) are also possible.
- Incorrect bite and abnormal position of the teeth – Incorrect position of the teeth greatly affects the health of the entire oral cavity, the gums are no exception. For example, actively protruding canines can “pull together” gum tissue, resulting in “bare” adjacent teeth. Also, with an incorrect bite, blood circulation is disturbed, which can cause degenerative-dystrophic processes in the gums.
- Recession of the gums is a common complication of orthodontic treatment – a disease in the area of the teeth, which are affected by corrective systems (braces). When undergoing orthodontic treatment, it is necessary to undergo regular check-ups by a Leo orthodontist.
- Age-related changes in the tissues of the gums and the mucous membrane of the oral cavity have a greater or lesser extent in almost all people from 60 years of age and older. In this, gum recession is associated with objective physiological changes due to aging of the body: a decrease in the tone of the gum tissues, their increased friability, a violation of microcirculation.
Treatment of gum recession: conservative and surgical
Eliminating gingival recession involves restoring the normal contour of the gums and creating a sheath for exposed tooth roots. The choice of treatment is influenced by the width and depth of the recession. Depending on this, treatment can be conservative or surgical.
Conservative treatment is effective only at the initial stage of the disease (with recession up to 1 mm). Conservative therapy involves the imposition of a membrane of animal collagen on the affected areas of the gums (after 2 weeks the collagen matrix is removed). Under the influence of the membrane, the synthesis of its own collagen is activated, which strengthens the gum tissue and serves as a framework for the growth of soft tissues around the exposed area of the tooth.
As practice shows, within six months after exposure to collagen, in more than half of the patients, the gum returns to its original position and completely covers the exposed tooth root, in the rest the degree of recession is significantly reduced.
In the early stages, drug therapy is also used with the use of drugs containing amelogenins – protein substances that stimulate the regeneration of bone and soft tissues of the gums.
Family dentistry “Your Dentist” also uses microsurgical techniques to eliminate gum recession. This approach significantly shortens the healing time, reduces the risk of edema and pain.
In order to close the exposed sensitive areas of the tooth root, the surgeon uses donor tissue (flap method). The tissue can be obtained from the adjacent healthy area of the gums, from the palatine zone of the oral cavity, from the area behind the wisdom teeth. Most often, a palatal connective tissue autograft is used, since it has high vascularization characteristics (that is, it has a large number of blood vessels). This minimizes the threat of rejection of the transplanted tissue, and ensures rapid graft engraftment.
The tissue prepared for transplantation is covered with exposed areas of the tooth root (recipient zone) and tightly sutured. The area from which the donor tissue was taken is also sutured. Healing in the donor zone is accelerated by the histatin proteins contained in saliva.
When carrying out plastic surgery to eliminate gum recession using the flap method, there is no need for general anesthesia. The recovery period is painless and takes from 2 to 3 weeks. Sometimes the doctor makes a special mouth guard, which he recommends to wear during meals so as not to irritate the wound surface. In the postoperative period, it is important to control the quality of oral hygiene.
There is also a method for eliminating gum recession using absorbable and non-absorbable membranes. However, this method is less preferable due to the high risk of postoperative complications: tissue infection, the likelihood of membrane rejection.
Frequently asked questions
You probably care about questions that other patients have already asked. Look through the answers to them, but if you still have doubts –
just contact us!
- Is there any need for special training before the gum recession operation?
Before the operation, the doctor conducts a thorough diagnosis: determines the degree of recession, analyzes the state of the oral cavity. Instrumental studies are carried out – to obtain an expanded image of the maxillofacial system, an orthopantomographic study is prescribed.
According to the results of the diagnosis, if necessary, treatment of carious lesions and inflammatory processes is carried out. Occupational hygiene is an essential part of preparation for the operation: it is necessary to remove deposits on the teeth. Also, the patient is consulted by an orthodontist – the correct bite is checked.
- What are the post-operation recommendations and how long is the recovery period?
The recovery process depends on how closely the patient follows the doctor’s recommendations. To reduce pain, you need to take pain relievers. Antiseptic medications, careful oral hygiene, and a change of toothbrush will help prevent inflammation.
You can not miss control visits to the doctor: it is important to show up the next day after the operation, so that the specialist monitors the progress of the recovery. In order not to further irritate the mucous membranes in the postoperative period, you should avoid sour and salty, carbonated drinks (they also contain acid), give up alcohol and smoking. When these recommendations are followed, the healing period is about three weeks.
- Is a relapse possible?
If the patient does not follow the recommendations in the postoperative period, tissue rejection is possible. To prevent relapse, it is necessary to change your dental care habits: brush your teeth at least twice a day (or better, after each meal), use a brush of suitable hardness so as not to additionally injure the gums, master the correct technique of brushing your teeth – by sweeping movements from the gums to cutting edge of the tooth.
It is important for patients with gum recession to follow the schedule of visits to the dentist: in the postoperative period, visits are recommended once a month, then every 6 months to monitor the condition of the gums.
- How to Choose a dental surgeon for gum recession surgery?
Most people listen to the recommendations of friends, some are looking for reviews of the doctor on the Internet or on the website of the clinic where the doctor works. But, definitely, you should be on your guard if the specialist you turned to is ready to carry out the operation without a thorough examination, which should include: instrumental examination, consultations with a therapist and orthodontist, and occupational hygiene.
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